Re Testimony to the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
Professor Clarence L. Mohr taught history at Tulane University for 17 years, and University Historian Joseph E. Gordon is dean emeritus of Tulane's College of Arts and Sciences, where he served in academic administration from 1954 to 1996. Their book, Tulane: The Emergence of a Modern University, 1945 – 1980 (Louisiana State University Press, 2001) documents, among other things, how Tulane became involved in one of the most nefarious projects associated with the Cold War period. A sample of their text is reprinted below.
Mohr and Gordon, TULANE, Chap. 2, pp. 120-123
In the course of his long career [Dr. Robert G.] Heath would receive both high professional acclaim and sharp criticism from his fellow physicians. A full account of either the controversy surrounding his work or the range of his scientific accomplishments falls outside the limits of this volume.  For present purposes, it is sufficient to note that at the beginning of the 1950s Heath and his fellow scientists were working at or very near the outer limits of existing neurophysiological knowledge—a fact that was not lost upon U.S. military and civilian intelligence agency officials, who were already engaged in highly secret efforts to develop psychochemical weapons, as well as interrogation and mind control techniques, that could be used against cold war adversaries. From the late 1940s onward, close ties existed between the army's Edgewood Arsenal, where chemical warfare research and experimentation were conducted, and the CIA and various military intelligence services.
By 1951 the sometimes cooperative, sometimes competitive military-CIA nexus had given rise to a coordinated army-navy-air force-CIA endeavor called Project Artichoke. As summarized in a 1952 memorandum, the project's major objectives included,
The following year, in 1953, Project Artichoke grew into to a larger and more ambitious undertaking known as Project MKULTRA, the scope and nature of which remained hidden until the summer of 1977. In the wake of two congressional investigations and the reluctant disclosure of some 16,000 pages of records obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, CIA director Stansfield Turner disclosed the broad outlines of a twenty-five-year, multimillion-dollar program of research on germ warfare and on methods to alter or control human memory and behavior through the use of drugs, electricity, sensory deprivation, hypnosis, and other means. Involving 185 researchers at 88 non-governmental institutions, including 44 colleges and universities, the project's scope and duration seemed to justify the conclusion of former State Department officer John Marks that
Certainly the Tulane experience lends support to Marks's conclusion that
FN114. On the controversy surrounding Heath's work, see Elliot Valenstein, Brain Control: A Critical Examination of Brain Stimulation and Psychosurgery (New York: John Wiley, 1973), 60-1, 164-8; Dr. Peter Roger Breggin, "The Return of Lobotomy and Psychosurgery," reprinted from Congressional Record, 24 February 1972, in Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, Quality of Health Care—Human Experimentation, 1973: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health, 93rd Cong., 1st sess., 23 February and 6 March 1973, part 2, pp. 469-71; and Heath's own testimony, ibid., 363-8.
FN115. Harvey M. Weinstein, M.D., Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1990), 129 (quotation); Linda Hunt, Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945-1990 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991), 162-5; John Marks, The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control (New York: Times Books, 1979) remains the most comprehensive treatment of the subject. See esp. chaps. 2 and 4.
FN116. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and Committee on Human Resources, Project MKULTRA, The C.I.A.'s Program of Research in Behavioral Modification: Joint Hearings before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, 95th Cong., 1st sess., 3 August 1977, 4-8; Marks, Manchurian Candidate, 151.
FN117. Marks, Manchurian Candidate, 151.
FN118. "Speakers at Seminars Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories, 1954," typescript document in authors' possession.
FN119. BOA [Board of Administrators] Minutes, 11 April 1956, item 15b of president's monthly report; Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Review of Reports on Department of the Army Grant (DA-18-CML 5596) to the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Tulane University, 1955-1959—Information Memorandum, dated 22 August 1975 and included with Colonel James R. Taylor and Major William N. Johnson,
FN120. James Olds and Peter Milner,
FN121. Marks, Manchurian Candidate, 33-6, 61-9, 151; Weinstein, Psychiatry and the CIA, 129.
Postscript: In 1995, Robert Heath acknowledged that he had received money from the CIA for his work . Heath had contributed to the CIA's mind control program by pioneering in techniques that subsequently were employed as instruments of torture . In 2002, the CIA contact at Tulane was Political Science Professor and former Deputy Provost Robert S. Robins, a former intelligence officer who at the time was conducting CIA-related research from the Provost's Office in Tulane's Norman Mayer Building .
Colin A. Ross, BLUEBIRD: Deliberate Creation of Multiple Personality by Psychiatrists, Manitou Communications, Inc, Richardson, TX, 2000,p. 98
For the role of physicians in mind control and torture, see: Gordon Thomas, Journey into Madness: The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse, Bantam Books, 1989,388 pp.
See: AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes #18-02 6 May 2002, http://www.afio.com/sections/wins/2002/2002-18.html, accessed Aug. 4, 2004. [Note: AFIO=Association of Former Intelligence Officers.]