MYRNA ESTEP, ph.D.
Hate: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party
388 pp with photos. Published by Brassey's, Washington, London, 1999
William H. Schmalz (author)
A Commentary and Review
Historically, National Socialism-termed ŒNazism'(1) --was Hitler's Conservative political creed of racial and cultural "purity." It was also a genocidal program of hatred directed specifically against Jews. Hitler's Nazism was based on the twin myths of racial and cultural "purity" of so-called Aryans (the Whites) and the "diseased and dirty" race and culture of so-called non-Aryans (the non-Whites), particularly the Jews. National Socialism became the foundational creed of a genocidal eugenics political program to "cleanse" the world of the "dirty" Jews and their "diseased" cultural influence. Hitler envisioned his Third Reich as the beginning of a New World Order that would put Ayran Whites back in their "natural" place of Superiority and Power over all others. It was also intended to rid the world of those whom he claimed had usurped Aryans of their "rightful" Power and Superior Position in the first place. Aryans had to be put back in to their natural place of superiority over others, Hitler held, because a powerful and deceitful Jewish cabal had over many years conspired through devious financial and cultural manipulation, to displace them.
In Hitler's view, the only real solution to the so-called "Jewish problem" was a Final Solution to rid the world of them, a world that had to be "cleansed" of Jews and their influence. At the end of WWII, the world learned of the efficient machinery of death built and operated by Hitler's SS to do just that. Throughout Europe, millions of Jews and entire populations of other "diseased and dirty" so-called "non-Aryans" were shipped in train cars to multiple concentration camps and murdered.
A Dramatic Shift to the Conservative Right in America
Since the end of WWII, but especially over the last 35 years or so, the political landscape in the U.S. --as well as other parts of the world--has shifted dramatically to the Conservative Right. That shift has largely gone unnoticed by those not old enough or not historically sensitive enough to place the Conservative Right political ideology and agenda in historical perspective. Many do not realize that the inherently racist, homophobic, and misogynist ideology now passed off by some Conservative Right politicians such as George W. Bush as acceptable and even respectable, was part of the reason the U.S. entered WW II. Millions of American soldiers died fighting against that hateful ideology that many on the Conservative Right‹in varying degrees-- are now trumpeting as a kind of "final solution" to socioeconomic and other problems they claim have been created by the U.S. Government and by the "Liberals" of the 1960's.
Certainly, American G.I.s returning from the ravages left by Hitler's Third Reich at the end of WWII probably could not have conceived the possibility that the United States might one day have its own Nazi Party. But in the 1950's, while the world was still coming to terms with the Holocaust and fighting Cold War Communism, George Lincoln Rockwell, born March 9, 1918 in Bloomington, Illinois, was engendering the idea of the American Nazi Party (ANP).
From the late 1950's until his death in 1967, Rockwell became the seminal force of post-World War II National Socialism (Nazism) in America and the originator of the "Holocaust Denial" movement. That movement, institutionalized in various neo-Nazi organizations such as the so-called "Committee on the Open Debate on the Holocaust" (CODOH) is so rampant today across the United States that many college-age and younger unquestioningly accept its fundamental thesis, that the Holocaust is a Jewish lie.
William H. Schmaltz's Hate: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party is an excellent, well-researched book on Rockwell's American Nazi Party (ANP) and its legacy to Conservatives in the United States. He has documented the historic development of this Conservative Right organization and its leader, who would otherwise be (and was, by some) dismissed as a "half-penny" Hitler. Through numerous interviews with many of the original ANP "Stormtroopers" of Rockwell's Party, and much research from the FBI and other original sources, Schmaltz traced the persistence of Rockwell and his supporters to establish the ANP over many financial, political, and legal obstacles, from 1958 through 1967.
Most importantly, Schmaltz provides us with an invaluable overview of the American Nazi Party's evolution to its present forms, the Christian Identity movement, Aryan Nations, and the Order. Certain of Rockwell's original Stormtroopers, such as William Peirce, head of the neo-Nazi National Alliance, have carried forward the Nazi creed and agenda of Rockwell's ANP. The last part of the book, the Epilogue, provides a very useful summary of that evolution and development, as well as an outline of the similarities and differences between the Conservatives of Rockwell's time and present-day Conservatives of the 1980's and 1990's.
Following a largely historical approach to Rockwell's formation of the American Nazi Party, Schmaltz provides a much needed insight into how it was possible for Rockwell to be as successful as he was among a very politically Conservative population during the 1950's and early 1960's in the U.S. All other things being equal, one might expect such a population, still recovering from the scars of WWII and the battles against Hitler, to entirely reject Nazism out of hand. Though many did reject the Party of Hate, too many did not then, and still do not reject it today in the year 2000. Indeed, under various guises paraded today before the Public by factions of the Conservative Right, too many are welcoming the basic ideas of Nazism with open arms.
Schmaltz's main contribution is his focus upon Rockwell's belief that Conservatives are really National Socialists. Though we would today reject Rockwell's claim about all Conservatives, we should take a serious look as to whether or not his claim is true about factions of the Conservative Right. Rightly or wrongly, In a national presidential election year where one of the front runners is a very popular candidate of the Conservative Right, we will focus upon that theme as well in this Commentary and Review. We want to examine the extent to which Rockwell's belief may be true.
Conservatives as National Socialists (Nazis)
Rockwell's legacy to the world‹especially to the Conservative Right in America--has been far-reaching. He believed that millions of people in the U.S. who considered themselves Conservatives (2) were either conscious National Socialists or were
Rockwell adhered to two basic beliefs in his desire to see the triumph of Nazism throughout the U.S. and eventually throughout the world. One belief, as noted, was that every Conservative is at heart a National Socialist, a Nazi. He believed that if given sufficient understanding of what that doctrine is, every Conservative would recognize his or her own basic beliefs in that doctrine. However, he also believed that Nazism had been given such "bad press" by powerful Jewish leaders in Hollywood--with their anti-Nazi WWII films--that most Conservatives would not openly acknowledge that that is what they really are.
The second major belief Rockwell held was that merging Nazism with Christianity would not only ensure Nazism's survival, but its ultimate triumph in the United States. Thus, Rockwell set out a plan which he followed in the last several years of his life, turning National Socialism into a redefined version of the Christian religion, Christian Identity. It is important to stress that Rockwell and the followers of Christian Identity have redefined and rewritten fundamental doctrines of traditional Judeo-Christianity in order to achieve a following for Nazism. Their redefined doctrines bear little resemblance to those of traditional Christianity. One of the foundational beliefs of Christian Identity is that Jews are the "seeds of Satan," and conspired to eradicate "God's chosen people," the Aryans. Christian Identity holds that one of the historically recent means Jews did this has been by perpetrating the lie of the Holocaust. Thus, in addition to merging Nazism with the contemporary Christian Identity movement in the U.S., Rockwell also originated the "Holocaust Denial" movement as well.
Some of the same religious and political arguments Rockwell used to advance the causes of National Socialism in the 1950's and 1960's until his death in 1967, can be found articulated in various statements by spokesmen for Conservative Right groups in the United States today. These spokesmen range from the Reverends Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell to Pat Buchanan, to Ronald Reagan at Bitburg's SS Cemetery, and to the overtly neo-Nazi World Church of the Creator Reverend Matt Hale. The Conservative Right religious spokesmen‹along with politicians upon whom they have great influence--have repeatedly and consistently advanced social, political, and legal policies against non-white minorities, women, homosexuals, and the poor, that are consistent with Hitler's and Rockwell's Nazism. Hitler's National Socialism and Rockwell's American Nazi Party (ANP) both left a strong legacy of hate to the Conservative Right in the U.S. today.
What is a Nazi?
But the Reader may rightfully ask, "Just what is it about the Conservative Right that might make it Nazi?" Clearly, on the surface that seems to be a very strong claim for anyone to make. To answer the Reader's question, one must distill the essence of Nazism--from Hitler to Rockwell to David Duke and to the Reverend Matt Hale. Once one gets clear on what that essence is, all one has to do is look for it anywhere one may find it.
The essence of Nazism comprises two fundamental beliefs: (1) that some people are genetically and morally inferior forms of life; and (2) that genetically and morally superior forms of life, to survive, must "purify" their race by eliminating genetically and morally inferior groups. In essence, Nazism is not just racism; it is also genocide.(3) Genocide, however, can take many forms. Under Hitler, the systematic efforts to exterminate entire so-called "inferior" peoples consisted of murder, both in the camps and out of them, starvation, and forced sterilizations, among other means. Additionally, there were systematic efforts put in place to simply "phase out" of existence more members of those so-called inferior groups by withholding food, shelter, and medication from them. "Inferior" people, including children, were often left simply to starve to death. "Under Nazi rule, 750,000 people across Europe, including 5000 children, were murdered [just] for being mentally or physically handicapped. Children were killed by injection, medical experimentation or simply starved. The Nazis called them "unworthy lives." (4)
Moreover, these groups of so-called "unworthy lives" provided a plentiful supply of research specimens for Nazi physicians and scientists. These victims often died as a result of cruel and inhumane experiments performed upon them. More specifically, concentration camps provided the ultimate Final Solution devised to efficiently exterminate as many Jews, Gypsies, handicapped, homosexuals, and mentally deficient as possible.
Use of the 'Disease' Metaphor
To promote his genocidal agenda, the "Disease Metaphor" was deliberately used by Hitler and his Nazi Third Reich theorists to promote the perception of a necessity to "cleanse" the body of Germany by ridding it of "putrid morally degenerate human filth" that had invaded it. So-called inferior peoples such as Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, and the poor, were seen as mongrels, racial and moral degenerates, an "insidious disease" infecting the body of society in the same way that cancer if left unchecked spreads throughout the human body:
Under Hitler, the new [pseudo-] science of eugenics was used to systematically set up programs of research and development to exterminate and "phase out" of existence so-called genetically and morally "inferior" persons, particularly Jews. He saw Jews as unnatural, diseased, and corrupting in their influence on others. And just as some diseases are spread by infections, when healthy organisms are invaded by the disease, Hitler held that Jews were parasites that had "infected" the "healthy" organism of Germany--with its naturally healthy and superior form of Ayran life. That diseased influence of the Jews, Hitler held, was destroying the German people. Thus, under Hitler, eugenics laws were first passed in Germany in 1933, quickly followed by similar laws throughout Western Europe and the United States.
Throughout the 1930's until the end of WWII, eugenics was popular in both Germany and the United States. It became synonymous with the scientific promotion of "race hygiene" to "purify" the white race of "low grade" and degenerate groups, the genetically inferior. "Not surprisingly, the victims usually turned out to be the traditional victims of racism - Jews, Blacks, women, and the poor." (6) Among such laws in the U.S., forced sterilization programs were designed to limit pregnancies among those persons held to be "feeble-minded" or having heritable diseases. The state of Virginia, for example, had a forced sterilization program that sought to sterilize all persons with hereditary defects, not just those who had been institutionalized, until the state was challenged before the Supreme Court by Oliver Wendell Holmes. Of course, most of those who were sterilized under Virginia law turned out to be Black females.
Hitler's concept of the Third Reich was of a Pure Nation "cleansed" of impurities and diseased degenerates. The Third Reich was to be based on the hegemony of the German People whose pure blood would determine its culture and its community. He and his SS set up Lebensborn (7) to ensure future generations of pure blooded Aryans who would build the Kultur of Germany. His concept of the German nation was not based on a concept of a common Constitution, with the free and open association of a richly diverse mosaic of citizens. It was to be a pure White Man's Nation whose values and culture were to be determined by purity of blood.
When the ravages of Hitler's eugenics extermination program became known at the end of WWII, there arose in the 1950's a concerted effort by many of its followers to divorce eugenics from racism.(8) When it became known that hundreds of concentration camps were scattered across Europe, specifically designed to "cleanse" Germany and the world of "inferior" groups of people, the world reacted with revulsion. The science of eugenics --and the biological determinist ("Natural Law") beliefs upon which it is based--became unpopular.
However, the effort to divorce eugenics from racism primarily drove the explicitly racist motives of eugenics advocates underground, where they largely remain today. Knowledge of what Hitler and his SS had done, based in part on the so-called scientific principles of eugenics, however, did not end eugenics advocacy and belief in biological determinism among racists in the United States.
The Conservative Right Ideology Today: From Natural to Unnatural Selection Brought About by Civil Rights and 1960's Liberals
Facets of the Conservative Right in the U.S. today hold that until the advent of Civil Rights laws in the 1960's, the rigors of Nature herself had largely ensured upward evolution of the species by natural selection of the strongest and (by implication) the best. Until the Civil Rights era, so-called "Natural Laws" determined who was best, brightest, and most deserving of life and the rewards of power. Those who were not the "best" simply died off from starvation, the diseases of poverty, or other forces of Nature. And, according to these Conservatives, until the 1960's--before anti-discrimination and affirmative action laws-- social policies and laws reflected the "natural" superiority of whites in positions of power. Until the 1960's, White Men were in virtually all significant positions of power in the United States. White Men held all the significant and high-paying jobs; White Men were the lawmakers, the decision-makers. It was White Men who commanded the U.S. Government and White Men who commanded the U.S. military.
But in the 1960s, these Conservative Right factions claim, with the passage of Federal Civil Rights legislation by a liberal Federal Government, along with modern science and (secular) humanism, a reverse, downward selection has been started among the human races. (9)
That is, these factions of the Conservative Right claim, 1960's Liberal political forces in the U. S. Government passed civil rights laws against discrimination based on race and ethnic origin that have started a downward evolution in the human species. Liberals and the U.S. Government have started an increased breeding of the weakest, most unnatural and morally degenerate human beings, non-whites, homosexuals and women. With affirmative action, these spokesmen claim, morally, culturally, and genetically inferior and degenerate persons are increasingly occupying positions of power throughout the U.S. This is unnatural selection, they claim, which is "contrary to God's Law," and contrary to "Natural Law." If humanity as a whole is left a victim to unnatural ideas of human equality and racial integration, advocated by 1960's Liberals, it will breed itself back down to the barbarian.
Of course, this ideology is at core Social Darwinism or biological determinism, the basis of eugenics. It is an expression of so-called "Natural Law" theory, of "White Male Might Makes Right," the core of National Socialism as both Hitler and as Rockwell saw it, and is held in one form or another by virtually all factions identified as falling under the Conservative Right today in the U.S. (10) Some Far Right Conservatives not only accept this ideology, but want to expand Hitler's genocidal doctrine beyond any primary focus on Jews to include non-white women, the poor, homosexuals, and what some refer to as "mud people." "Mud people" include African Americans, Hispanics, and anyone else who isn't white.(11)
Academic Racists and the American Nazi Party in the U.S.
As this article is being written, there is a very powerful anti-government, anti-Liberal, Conservative Right movement spreading in universities and colleges across the United States. This Conservative Right movement includes a very strong racist ideology of biological determinism, also known as "Social Darwinism" and "Natural Law" Theory. This is nothing less than a resurgence of eugenics-advocacy, propelled by factions of the Conservative Right, that intend a full-scale roll back of any Federal legislation designed to protect non-white minorities and women. These factions of the Conservative Right movement are allied with anti-Semitic, Christian Fundamentalist-Christian Reconstruction and Christian Identity groups as well as neo-Nazi organizations.
These Conservative Right neo-Nazis and their followers have successfully garnered positions for themselves in public and private organizations and agencies. In some cases, they evidently do not allow State, Federal, and local laws to stand in the way of their racist, misogynist, and anti-government goals. (12) The influence of members of these groups is so far reaching that they have been able within a relatively short period of time to influence the political makeup of various local, State and Federal agencies. They have also been able to effectively undo both Federal and State legislation against discrimination and to roll back laws protecting non-white minorities and women.
Increasingly, public policies, regulations of public and state supported institutions--especially public education--as well as some civil and criminal laws, are being radically changed by the Conservative Right so as to accommodate their "Natural Law," racist, religious, and misogynist views, as well as their anti-U.S. Government, anti-science, and anti-public institution views. It is out of this racist, homophobic, misogynist, and quasi-religious "Natural Law" theorizing that laws permitting discrimination against non-whites, homosexuality, and recent theories about the "naturalness" of rape and assault against females, have arisen. (13)
Increasingly as well, such Conservative Right groups call for nations to identify themselves in biological terms. It is this call, among other things, that the Conservative Right has in common with neo-Nazi groups. For example, one finds the following on the neo-Nazi World Church of the Creator website [http://www.creator.org/]:
We have come to hold these [race] views by observing the Eternal Laws of Nature, by studying History, and by using the Logic and Common Sense everyone is born with: the highest Law of Nature is the survival of one's own kind; history has shown us that the White Race is responsible for all that which we call progress on this earth; and that it is therefore logical and sensical to place supreme importance upon Race and to reject all ideas which fail to do so.
It is biological determinism that says immigration should be discouraged and genetically "superior stocks" should be encouraged to have large families. It is this view that holds that Federal Civil Rights laws, like anti-discrimination and affirmative action laws, effect "reverse evolution," giving inferior people unfair, parasitic advantages over "superior" white people. It is biological determinism that says that the Poor [mostly women, non-white minorities, and children] are poor largely because they are unintelligent, genetically unfit, and morally unworthy. It is also biological determinism that says that the policy of the United States toward developing countries with starving populations should be "Let them starve to death. It is Nature's way of ridding the world of dysgenic [genetically unfit] populations." (14)
"Natural Law" theory, the legalistic expression of biological determinism, is a brutal denial of human possibilities. It effectively says that there are no possibilities beyond what biology gives to us. In the 1930's, the famed German universities and their intellectuals first capitulated to the Third Reich, providing a mantle of intellectual "respectability" to anti-Semitism, helping to usher in the Holocaust. Likewise, today these "Natural Law," eugenics arguments have been advanced by academic racists and anti-Semites in some of the largest universities in the U.S. who are well known for their Conservative Right publications.
Although academic racism is nothing new, it has become so powerful in the U.S. over the last 35 years or so--particularly at major universities in southern states such as Texas---that forces supporting it are effectively rewriting laws of the land to reflect their views. (15) In the name of "States' Rights" and "individual rights --historically the clarion cry of racists--they are effectively rolling back Federal Civil Rights legislation protecting nonwhite minorities and women in order to accommodate their racist, biological determinist view of human kind.
And where they are unable to obtain legislation reflecting their racist views, they find ways of illegally putting those views into practice in any case. Groups of Conservative Right individuals formed at some State institutions of higher education, for example, contrive to drive minority and women faculty and students out of those institutions by illegal means. This is what some advocates of Social Darwinism, biological determinism, are doing at the University of Texas, under the cover of institutional authority. (16)
Some outspoken proponents of the "Natural Law" view can be found in Texas. The Conservative Right has such a strangle hold on the State of Texas that it has become George W. Bush's and the Conservative Right's blueprint for the United States, should George W. become elected President of the U.S. These proponents can be found in prestigious positions as department heads, faculty, and administrators at the University of Texas. (17, 18) If the edicts of these Texas Conservative Right spokesmen are any measure (19) --as reflected in recent anti-immigrant and anti-affirmative action sentiment found among Conservative Right tenured faculty especially at the University of Texas at Austin, the United States is overdue for a national "cleansing."
These Conservative Right academic racists now claim that virtually all non-white peoples and cultures are morally corrupt and "diseased." Non-white peoples and cultures, the Texas Conservative Right spokesmen claim, are not worthy of equal rights, protections, and opportunities under any State or Federal law in the United States. These Conservative Right academic racists want not only to completely abolish or roll back all Civil Rights legislation largely passed in the 1960's, they also want to roll back all social service supports that in any way help non-white minorities to remain alive. These Conservative Right spokesmen want to effectively "phase out" of existence non-white peoples and cultures they hold are unworthy to live. They hold that too many non-white peoples and cultures are like "parasites" on the healthy body of the United States. (20)
The Basic Principle of Hate
The basic principle of hate underlying Nazism is simple. Non-white minorities, the poor, homosexuals, and females are lower than the heterosexual White Man on the evolutionary chain of life. Invoking religious sanction, they claim that God has ordained that the heterosexual White Man, the highest, most morally perfect, and racially purest level of life on earth, should be vested with the most Power and Wealth. It is his sacred moral right to take and use everything else as he pleases. Whatever he does‹no matter what it is‹is by its very nature in the service of God's Will. This is so because the heterosexual White Male is by his very nature God's Chosen. No matter what he does, it will be Good because it is God's Will. This is the "Natural Order" of all things; whatever does not fit this "Natural Order" is "Unnatural" and must be either banished, beaten, locked up, or destroyed. This basic principle, wrapped in religious garb, is nothing short of Social Darwinism and is an expression of Nazism as Hitler and Rockwell expressed it.
Social Consequences of the Principle of Hate
Of course, there are brutal logical corollaries to this already brutal pseudo-religious principle of "White Might Makes Right." One doesn't have to look very far to find them, especially when social policies and laws are based upon a brutal and brutalizing vision of the "Nature of Things." One has only to look back at Hitler's Third Reich in the 1930's and 1940's.
But one can also look at the goals of the Conservative Right Big Money interests in the year 2000. Conservative Right Big Money interests have a two-pronged brutal "final solution" to the problems of poverty, increasing illegitimate births, rising numbers of non-white immigrants, and the incessant cry for equality from women, Hispanics, and Blacks. That "solution" under the rubric of various legislative "reforms"--is a coordinated assault on all federal and state civil rights laws and all public social service supports that in any way help the poor to remain alive, or help minorities gain equal rights and protections under the law. That assault also includes a heavy-fisted reassertion of patriarchal structures--clothed in Conservative Religious "Bible speak"--intended to shut women up and keep them in "their place."
The Conservative Right wants to reinstate traditional rigid divisions between public and private realms. In doing so, they will shift all social programs such as Welfare and Child Protective Services and public education to the private (religious) realm, ultimately with no public tax support. The poor will be left where they have almost always been left: with their poverty and hunger, their Church, and their children--and out of sight of the rich and well-to-do classes. They will also be left with a wrecked justice system that does not hear the poor and does not recognize civil and human rights. A revised "Kinder, Kirke, Kuche" is the sum total program for poor women devised by the Conservative Right.
Threads of the "White Might Makes Right" ideology of the Nazi, found in abundance in the Conservative Right in the United States, are starkly simple. When non-white minorities and their children go hungry and starve or die prematurely from diseases of poverty, well‹that's just the way it is. They should die because they are deficient as human beings, the ideology rants. (21) The poor are deficient by Nature because most of them are not white and do not--cannot--have the superior values of white culture. Of those who are white, they are the progeny of mixed races and hence are mongrels. These lower forms of life deserve to die because they are racially and (hence) morally impure. As such, they are not worthy of God's rewards on this earth. Furthermore, we must not thwart God's Will by helping the poor to remain alive. Welfare programs must be either drastically cut back or, preferably, ended altogether. Either the poor, women and children survive on their own‹or they die.
To find more of the brutal corollaries to the Principle of Hate, one must look at what the Conservative Right does‹and listen a whole lot less to what they say. Ideas of White Male racial and moral superiority, with an implied right to use and diminish or "phase out" other groups or the programs upon which they depend to remain alive--are found throughout the political agenda of the Conservative Right.
As is evident, these ideas generally rest on spurious fundamentalist religious foundations. One does not have to look far to find such ideas in the ideological rants of politicians from George W. Bush to Pat Buchanan to Richard Butler, the leader of the Aryan Nations, and to Pontifex Maximus Reverend Matt Hale of the World Church of the Creator. They are also found in the de facto racist, homophobic, and misogynist policies of State governments‹such as the State of Texas; and in policies of state colleges and universities‹such as the University of Texas. They are also found in decisions made in boardrooms of large corporations, such as Texaco; and those Big Money corporations that own and operate certain states such as the State of Texas.
By Any Other Name. . . Threads of the American Nazi Party in the Conservative Right
Hiding behind nice-sounding labels and linguistic equivocations, some of these ugly Nazi ideas‹with a few twists-- are rearing their heads yet again in the Conservative Right across the United States. To help these hateful ideas catch hold, the Conservative Right uses virtuous labels in political "bait and switch" tactics. In one hand, they offer the Public an idea labeled Good and Kind. When the Public reaches for that idea, it turns out sometimes too late for the Public to reject--to be something Ugly, Brutal, and Cruel.
One such label is "Compassionate Conservatism." In one hand, the Public at large is handed an idea of racial and ethnic "inclusiveness" and help for "those who really need it." It is an idea that even gets championed by token African American and Hispanic marionettes who dance to the tune of Conservative Right Big Money. (22)
In reality, "Compassionate Conservatism" is George W. and Big Money's Conservative Right ideological program of brutal and cruel war against the poor, children, women, and non-white minorities. It is not so well hidden under various rhetorical and linguistic masks intended to cover the harsh brutality of its effects on its targets. In reality, it is a program of hateful brutality intended to diminish the lives or "phase out" of existence those most in need. It is a program intended to eliminate federal or state help to the poor and others most in need of food, health care, decent housing, clean air and water, and civil and criminal due process. It is a program of brutality against the most defenseless in our society.(23)
"Compassionate Conservatism," its progenitors say, is "Tough Love." But what these well-fed, well-kept and pseudo-intellectuals from Texas are calling "Tough Love" has left a large percentage of the poorest children in Texas hungry. Most of those children, of course, are African American and Hispanic. What they call "love" has left far too many Texas children with little or no medical care while also living in severely impoverished conditions. What these ideologues call "love" leaves children not only without enough to eat, without sufficient healthcare, it also leaves them without even minimal protections for their welfare and safety under the law, and without adequate education. What these well-fed and well-kept theorists call "love" builds more prisons than schools every year to house juveniles, alongside those whose miserable lives have led either by design or by accident to the ravages of crime. What these sophisticates call "love" is a program of vicious cruelty that arrogantly engages in the official machinery of death. It engages that official machinery even for those not old enough to vote when they commit crimes for which they are imprisoned. It is a program that denies even the semblance of justice to the most poor, mentally deficient and diseased. Moreover, what these "compassionate conservatives" call "love" is a program that has the effect of forcing pregnancy on economically disadvantaged pre-teen girls while it denies them sufficient legal and medical means to protect or care for themselves.
Though it may take us on a detour from Schmaltz's book, given its focus upon the Conservative factions in the U.S. and their relation to Nazism, the State of Texas warrants serious mention here. The State of Texas under the governorship of George W. Bush is effectively nothing less than a Blue Print for the nation, should George W. become President of the United States. Thus, certain facts about Texas under the governorship of a Conservative Right Presidential contender bear repeating:
Some facts about Texas, the Conservative Right Blueprint for the U.S.
1. Texas executes more prisoners than any other jurisdiction in the Western World. (24) Most of those executed are too poor to hire their own attorneys, or they are mentally retarded or mentally ill. In some cases, Texas has executed young prisoners who were 17 when they committed the crime that led to their imprisonment. In response to the Columbine shootings, one Texas legislator wanted to lower the death penalty in Texas to age 11. (25) It was probably the image of a small child being strapped to a prison gurney as the state pumped poison into a little arm that led other legislators to stop that effort. But George W. publicly supports assembly line executions now taking place in Texas.
2. Amnesty International issued a report this year  citing Texas' clemency process for "violat[ing] minimum safeguards for human rights." (26) Along with countries like China, Iraq and Iran, Texas ranks low in terms of according prisoners minimal human rights.
3. Texas ranks exactly 51st out of the 50 states and the District of Columbia in the quality of criminal defense provided for accused defendants too poor to hire their own attorneys. "In recent years the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals has upheld death sentences in at least three cases in which the defense lawyers slept during trial."(27) Yet George W. vetoed a bill that would have modestly improved the disgraceful quality of legal representation available to poor defendants in Texas.(28)
4. Both the civil and criminal parts of the Texas system of justice are an acknowledged public mockery of American justice. Texas justice is a system in which large corporations can be legally "forgiven" for causing the death of workers, while 9-year old little girls are essentially held responsible for their own gang-rapes. (29)
5. Texas ranks 48th out of the 50 states and the District of Columbia in terms of conditions best for bringing up children. (30) Texas is 3 states away from being the absolute worst state in the United States for bringing up children. In spite of billions of dollars of a huge budget surplus, Texas can't seem to find the spare change to provide decent conditions for children to thrive. Of course, internationally, the entire United States doesn't rank very high in terms of its treatment of children. But Texas ranks near the bottom of the barrel of the bottom of the barrel on recognized measures of child welfare: rates of child abuse and neglect; immunizations under age 2; high school dropouts; child poverty; child deaths; infant mortality; mothers not receiving prenatal care in the first three months of pregnancy; juvenile arrests; teen births and divorce. Texas ranks at or near the bottom of the barrel in virtually every one of these categories.
6. In one year alone, 1998, the number of children who died of abuse and neglect in Texas increased by 71 percent. (31) Deaths of children in Texas from abuse and neglect have increased every single year [until the year he openly ran for President of the U.S.] since George W. became governor. Apparently, the only time the State of Texas does anything about deplorable conditions is when those conditions publicly embarrass the Texas governor while running for President.
7. Texas is 2nd in the United States in the number of medically uninsured children (1.5 million uninsured). (32) Yet George W. established eligibility to the federal/state Children's Health Insurance Program at 150% of the federal poverty level, dropping or leaving more poor children in Texas out of the insurance program.
8. Texas leads the nation in lost Medicaid coverage for children due to George W.'s welfare initiatives, which he calls a "model for the nation." (33)
9. Texas has the largest volume of air pollution in the United States. (34) Yet George W. supported a voluntary emissions program for grandfathered industrial plants that have been exempt from pollution control since the Texas Clean Air Act was passed in 1971. (35) Those exempted industrial plants in Texas are among the worst industrial polluters in the entire United States.
10. Texas ranks 50th in per capita spending. (36) It had a $1.7 billion surplus in 1997 and had a $6.7 billion surplus in 1999 under George W. Yet George W. did not use these surplus billions to fund underfunded programs, such as those to prevent the 71% increase in deaths of children from abuse and neglect. They were used primarily to benefit Big Money. (37)
11. After the Littleton, Colorado massacre of high school students, the only gun-related bill passed by the Texas Legislature was a bill protecting gun manufacturers from lawsuits filed by cities. George W. signed that bill into law. (38)
12. Texas ranks among the top states in the nation in the rate of violence against women committed with guns. (39) Women face greater danger in states like Texas which have fewer gun controls than in those states that have gun control legislation in place. Yet George W. refuses to sign gun control legislation, saying that no law can change people's hearts.
13. Texas ranks eighth from the bottom among the fifty states in the number of jobless citizens who get unemployment benefits. (40) Only 22 percent of jobless Texans receive unemployment benefits, compared to a national average of 35 percent.
14. Texas ranks sixth from the bottom among states in the number of residents who earn family incomes below the federal poverty level. (41)
15. Texas ranks 47th in the percentage of workers in unions. (42)
16. Texas ranks 47th in the amount of welfare for a family of three, barely at subsistence level. (43)
17. Texas ranks 47th in per-capita state funding for public health, while approximately 25% of its babies go without immunizations. (44)
18. And Texas ranks 50th in poor working parents without health insurance and 50th (as noted above) in the percentage of children with no health insurance. (45)
19. Finally, Texas ranks 48th in spending for parks and recreation. (46)
In every single major category of quality of life and protections for the health and well-being of families, especially children and the poor, Texas consistently ranks at or near the bottom of the barrel.
All along, this program of "Compassionate Conservatism" rewards those who already have Big Money and Power with more of the same. It rewards Conservative Right Big Money interests who have Big Plans for those who have little or no resources of their own. In Texas, it especially rewards those who despoil the land around us, who poison the air we breathe and the water we drink.
Though Œcompassion' is a word that calls forth visions of care, concern, and charity, George W.'s "Compassionate Conservatism" is in reality a program of brutality, viciousness, and cruelty. It is based on the myth that the poor and non-white minorities as morally undeserving and degenerate, and on the genocidal, racist motive to diminish their existence or "phase" them out of existence entirely by ending any public Federal or State support for them.
National Socialism and Christianity: The Religious Basis of Nazism
As stated, Rockwell's legacy to the Conservative Right in America included merging Nazism with forms of Christianity. Rockwell's plan was to make Nazism respectable and acceptable on a massive scale to the American people by turning it into a religion. Like politicians today, especially George W. Bush--with his appeal to "faith-based" programs to take over social services for the poor--Rockwell wanted to "manipulate America's intrinsic Œreligious fury' [in order] to seize political power" [p. 211]. Rockwell's plan was to eliminate all references to ŒNazism'‹while retaining the creed and agenda of Nazism--and to restructure the entire National Socialist movement into a form of Christianity.(47)
The Christian Identity Movement: Jews as the "Seed" of Satan
As Schmaltz recounts [p. 211], Rockwell met in 1964 with Wesley Swift, the leader of the Christian Identity Church in the United States. Swift had popularized Christian Identity theology--also known as Identity, Kingdom Identity, and Christian Israel-- during the 1940's and 1950's, teaching that God's law on earth had to be established through an apocalyptic battle between the forces of good and evil. Identity believers hold that only white Christian men are
Rockwell's concern was to devise a plan to mold the American Nazi Party into a religion to give Biblical authority to the racist genocidal policies of the American Nazi Party. Like other politicians, Rockwell knew how to dress up ugly, hateful ideas to make them look and sound like something they aren't. Like the Conservative Right today, he knew how to play political "bait and switch" games. To make his political agenda more palatable to the American Public, he undertook a "denazification" program to eliminate all references to the word "Nazi," while still retaining the original Nazi creed and agenda. He knew that "Nazism" was an objectionable term for most people, even those who may otherwise be attracted to the ideology behind it. He was killed, however, before entirely fulfilling his plans to turn National Socialism into the religious movement he envisioned. But his followers (49) are attempting to carry out his vision. The meeting between Christian Identity leader Swift and Rockwell led to Rockwell appointing one of his Stormtroopers as the American Nazi Party's own Christian Identity minister.
Christian Identity is only one of an entire network of Conservative Right groups who believe that whites are racially superior to everyone else. Many right-wing groups such as the Aryan Nations, Ku Klux Klan, and National Alliance, have been either directly or indirectly involved in terrorist and criminal activity, and some of their leaders are direct descendents of Rockwell's American Nazi Party.
The ideology of the Aryan Nations and the Order, as well as groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, and the National Alliance, flows from the same racist, anti-Semitic religious beliefs of "Christian Identity." Aryans who cooperate with Jews and darker races are considered "race-traitors." Many also espouse anti-government sentiments, holding that the Federal Government is an instrument of Satan, a creation of the Jews. In an attempt to live apart from "inferior people," some right-wing groups advocate creating a separate nation from the five states comprising the northwest region of the United States--Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Many of these groups have been involved in criminal, terrorist activities. In April 1997, three members of the True Knights of the Ku Klux Klan were arrested and found guilty in Texas for planning to blow up a natural gas storage facility as a diversionary tactic prior to robbing an armored carrier. Earlier, the FBI's "Rapid Lightning" investigation involved a series of criminal acts committed by individuals associated with a domestic terrorist organization known as the Phineas Priesthood. The subjects of the investigation were responsible for at least two bombing/bank robbery incidents in Spokane, Washington, in April and July 1996. Three subjects were arrested in October 1996, and a fourth in 1997. Since then, all four have been convicted of all eight felony counts for which they were charged and have received lengthy jail sentences.
Fifty Five Years After Hitler: The New World Order of the Conservative Right
Upon Rockwell's death, the American Nazi Party metamorphosed in the late 1960's and early 1970's into the National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP). It later became what is now known‹in 1999--as The Order. The Order, headed by one of Rockwell's foremost Stormtroopers, Matt Koehl, has been involved in numerous criminal violent acts of terrorism across the U.S. The following description can be found online at http://www.nswpp.org/.
The National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP)/ The Order
The Official Program of the NSWPP [NSWPP, Koehl, 1980] calls for an Aryan Republic. It calls for citizenship on the basis of Aryan blood, a racial community, a new educational system that instills racial values, a better race, and a rebirth of traditional Aryan spiritual values. NSWPP supports eugenic measures and demands an end to racially impure blood within the gene pool of the racial community.
The loss of a biological community is a major concern for neo-Nazis and the Klan, according to Dobratz and Shanks-Meile [Op.cit]. The New Order organization (White Power, No. 104, 1983:5) states that white people have lost contact with their own biological community and thus feel themselves alienated and alone. As the cure for the problems associated with individual freedom, whites need to live their lives in harmony with the laws of nature and reject everything that is decadent and corrupt. Stoner, of the National States Rights Party,
Also according to Dobratz and Shanks-Meile [op.cit], a stable family unit, a healthy environment, and a healthy farming community which provides social, racial, and environmental stability are major ingredients of the community for both the neo-Nazis and the Klansmen. Members "should have the freedom to associate in their own communities" without interference from other "cultures, nations and races of man" (White Patriot-Special Introductory Issue, no date:6). In the "enlightened community...anything which interferes with the smooth and harmonious functioning of society must be ruthlessly suppressed" (Official Program, NSWPP), Koehl, 1989:3).
The "Disease Metaphor" used so effectively by Hitler is evident in the following statement by Koehl.
To develop an Aryan culture, the New Order states that one must
The National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP)
Harold Covington currently heads the National Socialist White Peoples Party. Harold Armstead Covington, a.k.a. Winston Smith, was born September 14, 1953, in Burlington, N. C. He appeared on the far-right scene in the late 1970s, when he made the acquaintance of Frank Collin of the National Socialist Party of America (NSPA). Collin himself had been ousted from the Arlington, Va.-based National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP) of the late George Lincoln Rockwell.
Covington at that time claimed to have been an acquaintance of Rockwell (though this information has never been confirmed by a third-party source nor even denied by Covington's worst enemies) and claimed to be a representative of a North Carolina branch of the NSWPP. Together, Collin and Covington planned a re-staging of Rockwell's famous march through the largely Jewish Chicago suburb of Skokie, Ill. However, once it came to be known that Collin was actually Jewish (born Frank Cohn), Collin withdrew his plan to march in Skokie, though he maintained that he was being "smeared" by political enemies.
He traveled instead to North Carolina, where his rabble-rousing with Covington and assorted elements of the far right including White Patriot Party leader Glenn Miller. This led to a shoot-out in Greensboro, N.C., in Fall of 1978, leaving five Communist Party USA activists dead and Collin, Miller and Covington all under Federal investigation. The investigations into the Greensboro shootings continued through the early 1980s. In 1980, Covington replaced Collin as head of the NSPA.
Despite a continued show of force on his part, and even a relatively successful run for State Attorney General of North Carolina as a Republican in 1980 (he took 43% of the vote), Covington left the U.S. soon after and traveled to Ireland, South Africa and the United Kingdom. He then settled in United Kingdom for several years. Some elements of the far right claim that Covington had turned FBI informant in the Greensboro case (and there is some third-party evidence to suggest that this is true), thus evoking the wrath of former allies and fellow travelers.
The most prominent of Covington's new-found enemies was Ben Klassen, founder of the World Church of the Creator (COTC), who, with William Pierce of the National Alliance and Tom Metzger of White Aryan Resistance, tried to expose Covington as an informant and, like Collin, a Jew. The World Church of the Creator is now headed by the Reverend Matt Helm, who declares himself Pontifex Maximus (High Priest).
Before settling in the United Kingdom, Covington claims to have served as a mercenary for white separatists in the apartheid nations of Southern Africa. This claim has been widely disputed. Enemies that Covington made in the United Kingdom have also linked him to the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and it is believed that Covington holds dual Irish and U.S. citizenship as a result of a marriage to an Irish woman. During his sojourn in the United Kingdom, Covington made several contacts within the fascist-leaning British National Party and openly fascist National Front. These contacts culminated in Covington's role in forming Combat 18 . The "18" in the name refers to the letters of the alphabet corresponding to Adolf Hitler's initials. Combat 18 was an openly violent organization that took the United Kingdom race problem to the streets with violence resulting. However, it was also revealed at the time that Covington, was also keeping a North Carolina Post Office Box for Combat 18, giving further credence to the idea that he was an FBI or CIA informant.
In the early 1990's, Covington returned to the United States, and set up the NSWPP again in Raleigh, N.C., declaring himself the rightful heir of Rockwell. He briefly moved the organization to Seattle in 1994, apparently trying to capitalize on the "white bastion" idea of Aryan Nations, but returned to North Carolina within two years, settling in Chapel Hill, his base of operations today.
Covington launched the NSWPP Web site in 1996 and began posting anti-Semitic and racist diatribes in Usenet. He quickly found allies in the Holocaust denial community and offered his writing services openly to Ingrid Rimland of the Zundelsite. Although Klassen was by now dead, Pierce and his North Carolina lieutenant Will Williams and Tom Metzger launched an all-out attack on Covington on the Internet. Williams successfully sued Covington for libel in 1997 for statements made on the Internet. Also, Metzgerites in Florida set up NSWPP.COM as an "expose" of the true nature of Harold Covington. Still, despite his constant embattlement and laughingstock status, Covington remains.
The National Alliance and "The Turner Diaries"
One of the leaders of National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP) in the 1960's, William Pierce, now heads what is called the National Alliance at his "headquarters" in West Virginia. The following description of Pierce and his organization can be found at http://www.natall.org/.
Dr. William L. Pierce, head of the National Alliance, does not fit the stereotype of the redneck racist. He commands uncommon respect from nearly every corner of the extremist Conservative Right movement in America. Beneath the polished exterior that he presents is a dark character that is revealed only in his self-published fiction-- "Hunter"--a novel whose hero's hobby is shooting interracial couples, and the now infamous "The Turner Diaries"--an apocalyptic vision of the future. The Turner Diaries inspired the worst incidence of domestic terrorism in U.S. history, the Oklahoma City bombing.
The Turner Diaries also inspired the most successful terrorist underground to emerge since the Civil War, The Order, which robbed banks and armored cars, counterfeited money and committed murders across the country in the early to mid-1980's.
Pierce's doctorate was awarded in the discipline of physics by the University of Colorado at Boulder. Though he originally hailed from Atlanta, Pierce ended up in the Pacific Northwest, teaching physics at Oregon State University until 1965, when he left academia to work briefly as a physicist in the private sector in New England.
It was during this period that he became involved in the ultra-conservative but not outwardly fascist or neo-Nazi John Birch Society, which has traditionally ousted members for openly anti-Semitic points of view, including Tom Metzger of White Aryan Resistance, Richard Butler of Aryan Nations, and others.
In 1966, Pierce left physics for good and threw his lot with the America Nazi Party led by George Lincoln Rockwell. After Rockwell's death, the American Nazi Party had little life left in it, until it was resurrected by Harold Covington a few years ago. Pierce eventually formed his own splinter group, the National Youth Alliance (later The National Alliance). Over the course of the last 25 years, Pierce moved his organization from the Washington metropolitan area to Westboro, West Virginia. Like the Church of the Creator (COTC) and White Aryan Resistance, Pierce has abandoned Christianity as a religion tainted by its Jewish roots. Instead, Pierce promotes an anti-Semitic "Creativity" style religion similar to that preached by the COTC. Pierce had close ties with COTC founder Ben Klassen and owns several acres of property that he bought from Klassen in rural Georgia.
The National Alliance and Pierce are most successful as propaganda mills. His press, the National Vanguard, publishes not only Pierce's hateful novels, but also tracts advocating forcible separation of the races, "proofs" that blacks are genetically inferior to whites and bizarre theories of Jewish control of American government, society and thought. He broadcasts a weekly radio program called "American Dissident Voices" which he makes available for all to hear on his Web site.
Shortly following the death of poet Allen Ginsberg, who was Jewish and gay, Pierce stated that he believed that persons who published material such as Ginsberg's should be shot. This speech was reproduced at his Web site, which is emblazoned with the motto "Free Speech."
Pierce also once wrote that
The World Church of the Creator
Another Conservative Right group that is a descendent of Rockwell's American Nazi Party is the so-called World Church of the Creator. As seen above, William Pierce rejected Christianity because it was "contaminated" with Judaism. Hence, he and other followers of American Nazism, specifically Matt Hale, established a new religion of "Creation." The following description of the religion of Creativity can be found at http://www.creator.org
After six thousand years of recorded history, our people finally have a religion of, for, and by, them. CREATIVITY is that religion. It is established for the Survival, Expansion, and Advancement of our White Race exclusively. Indeed, we believe that what is good for the White Race is the highest virtue, and what is bad for the White Race is the ultimate sin.
Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
The following description can be found at http://www.duke.org/. David Duke is owner of the David Duke Online Report.
David Duke is the best known and most politically active racist in the United States and has one of the longest resumes on the Far Right. Beginning as a Nazi sympathizer as a student at Louisiana State University, Duke eventually formed the Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, of which he was national leader. His lieutenants included Don Black of Stormfront web page, Louis Beam, now of Aryan Nations, and Tom Metzger, now of White Aryan Resistance.
In the early 1980s, Duke left the KKK to form the National Association for the Advancement of White People, a group he called a "civil rights group" for whites. He also made a foray into electoral politics, running first for President on the 1988 Populist ticket backed Holocaust denier Willis Carto and managed by former American Nazi Party official Ralph Forbes (under George Lincoln Rockwell). His running mate for a short period of time was militia sympathizer Bo Gritz. After garnishing a tiny number of votes, Duke then put his emphasis on Louisiana politics, winning a seat in the Louisiana legislature.
In 1992, Duke shocked the country by forcing Louisiana into a runoff election for governor that he eventually lost. Recently, however, Duke ran abortively once again for president in 1996 and was very recently elected to head the GOP in St. Tammany, Louisiana, the largest white parish in the state.
Holocaust Denial and the "Respectability" of Racism
Committee on the Open Debate on the Holocaust (CODOH)
As pointed out by Schmaltz, though it was once espoused solely by the "lunatic fringe," the denial of the Holocaust has become an acceptable part of the public fare in both academic and public media outlets. The Committee on the Open Debate on the Holocaust (CODOH), part of a national neo-Nazi (Aryan Nation/Christian Identity) movement in the United States, regularly runs advertisements in student newspapers on public and private university and college campuses. They openly seek to persuade young students that the Holocaust was a lie, perpetrated by powerful Jewish conspirators seeking even more power.
CODOH was originated by Bradley Smith and Mark Weber, using marketing techniques that are directed at students. Of course, university and college students are not only experienced with the Internet but are also somewhat disposed to challenge authority. Recent ads, like the one appearing in the student newspaper, the Logos, at the University of the Incarnate Word in San Antonio, hooks readers with a promise of a $250,000 reward to whoever can arrange a 90-minute, prime-time nationally televised debate about the Holocaust between Smith and ADL.
According the AntiDefamation League, Smith readily admits he doesn't "really expect a TV debate to take place." This ad, like Smith's previous efforts, is a "bait and switch," a deceptive enticement spouting hollow promises designed to encourage students to visit his "vast Internet archive of revisionist scholarship and comment."
In spite of the absence of the title "National Socialism" in the language of the Conservative Right in the United States, the original racist, misogynist, and genocidal creed of National Socialism and its objectives have been inherited by various Conservative Right groups sharing the same ideology of hate. The legacy of this creed can be traced from Hitler's Third Reich eugenics theorists and practitioners to the American Nazi Party, the National Alliance, the Aryan Nations, The Order, and Christian Identity--among others. It is also found in various guises in social policy and political pronouncements and proposed "solutions" of politicians and spokesmen for the Conservative Right, including powerful Conservative Right factions of the Republican Party.
In addition to spouting the Holocaust Denial theme, various Conservative Right groups associated one way or another with the Republican Party, rallying against Civil Rights legislation passed largely in the 1960's, have used what amounts to the creed of National Socialism on which to base their arguments and their movement.
In the year 2000, we are witnessing a dramatic increase in hate groups across the U.S. Many of them spout the most hateful invectives against Jews, "mud" people, "60's Liberals, the U.S. Government, and women. The Internet has proven to be one of their most effective means of their communication and growth, enlisting more and more disenfranchised or just simply disturbed people. Their hate websites are filled with overt threats against leaders of liberal groups and other social causes. We have also witnessed an apparent willingness of some young people-- mostly young white males --to use assault weapons to kill others as well as themselves. Among the latter, police and investigators found a disturbing presence of neo-Nazi sentiments and admiration of Adolf Hitler.
*Labels such as 'Conservative' and 'Liberal' are notoriously vague. However, the term 'Conservative Right' is taken to refer to a spectrum of political groups generally associated with the Republican Party in the United States. It is also taken here to refer to the extreme and religious Right and Far Right Conservatism in the United States.